Cyber Crime

Cyber crimes can be defined as the unlawful acts where the computer is used either as a tool or a target or both.  The term is a general term that covers crimes like phishing, credit card frauds, bank robbery, illegal downloading, industrial espionage, child pornography, kidnapping children via chat rooms, scams, cyber terrorism, creation and/or distribution of viruses, Spam and so on. [1] Cyber crime is a broad term that is used to define criminal activity in which computers or computer networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks. It also covers the traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity.[2]

Cyber crime can be committed in two ways – one in which the computer is the target of a cyber attack, and the other in which the computer is used to commit a cyber crime against any person or entity. [3]

Cyber crimes in India are categorised into main four types which include: [4]

  • Cyber crime against a person:This type of cyber crime is committed against a person using an electronic domain as a medium. Cyber crime against a person includes:
    • Cyber stalking
    • Hacking
    • Cracking
    • Defamation
    • Online Fraud
    • Dissemination of Obscene Material
    • Child Pornography
    • Spoofing
    • Phishing
  • Cyber Crime against property:Cyber crime against property is committed using an electronic device as a medium. Here, the property does not mean any immovable property but includes movable and intangible property like computers, Intellectual Property, etc. Different cyber crimes against property are:
    • Transmitting virus
    • Cybersquatting
    • Cyber vandalism
    • Cyber property crimes
  • Cyber crime against Government:The government of a country may become the target of a cyber crime as well. Any cyber crime committed against a government is committed to threatening the unity, honour, and security of the target country. Cyber crime against government includes:
    • Cyber warfare
    • Cyber terrorism
  • Cyber crime against society: When a cyber crime is committed against numerous individuals, it is known as cyber crime against society. Cyber crime against society includes:
    • Online gambling
    • Cyber trafficking

In order to curb the menace caused by the cybercriminals, the government has enacted the Information Technology Act, 2000 whose prime objective is to create an enabling environment for effective use of the internet along with reporting cyber crime in India. The IT Act is a comprehensive law that deals with technology with respect to e-governance, e-commerce, and e-banking. The cyber law also lays down the penalties and cyber crime punishment in India. [5]

The Indian Penal Code was also amended to include crimes like fraud, forgery, theft, etc. committed over the internet or through an electronic medium. [6]

Stopping cybercrime is the responsibility of the government or the bodies dedicated to the same but you can also take some steps to stop cybercrime affecting you. [7] These steps include:

  • Education – Hackers aren’t the only ones who can gain power from information. By educating yourself about the types of scams that exist on the Internet and how to avert them, you are putting yourself one step ahead of the cybercriminals. [8]
  • Activate your firewall – Firewalls are the first line of cyber defence; they block connections to unknown or bogus sites and will keep out some types of viruses and hackers. [9]
  • Use anti-virus/malware software – Prevent viruses from infecting your computer by installing and regularly updating anti-virus software. [10]
  • Secure your wireless network – Hackers can access data while it’s in transit on an unsecured wireless network. You can keep the hackers out by enabling the firewall on your router and changing the router’s administrator password. Cybercriminals often know the default passwords and they can use them to hack into your network. [11]
  • Click with caution – When you’re checking your email or chatting over instant messenger (IM), be careful not to click on any links in messages from people you don’t know. The link could take you to a fake website that asks for your private information, such as user names and passwords, or it could download malware onto your computer. Even if the message is from someone you know, be cautious. Some viruses replicate and spread through email, so look for information that indicates that the message is legitimate. [12]
  1. The list of some important articles on cyber crime written by Pavan Duggal, President Cyber Law India 
  1. Cybercrime Cybercrime Everywhere- no place to hide
  2. Our cyber cells are not equipped to deal with cyber crime
  3. Tackling Cyber Crimes – Need for Stringent Laws
  4. Theft of ATM password attracts IPC and cyber law
  5. India: Terrorism And Cybercrime
  6. Your cybercrime-friendly legislation
  7. A warning against the Internet’s dangers
  8. Indian Blackout – Some legal perspectives
  9. Important Cyber Law Trends in India – 2014
  1. Cyber Crime Articles Quoting Pavan Duggal
  1. Internet freedom: Govt promises but Section 66A needs to go
  2. India’s Information Technology Act has not been effective in checking cyber crime: Expert
  3. Know this law well: It can get you arrested for a Facebook post or text message!
  4. Will ask social networking sites to have servers in India: Centre to SC
  5. India needs better cyber police
  6. Facebook, Google, Twitter and other social networks will have to host web servers in India: Centre to SC
  7. Instagram allows nudity only for Celebrities?
  8. Cyber crime: 1,600 arrested, only 7 convicted
  9. Indian companies still to come out of the closet on cyber crime
  10. ​Now, ‘ransomware’ plays havoc with data
  11. Cloning cards – the latest online menace
  12. ‘We can’t ban the word sex!’ Government argues blocking porn sites ‘will also hit medical literature’
  13. Cyber frauds raise their ugly head yet again
  14. Watch out for cyber bullies
  15. Delhi Police probing Google’s map contest
  16. ‘Porn sites cause crime against women’: Supreme Court demands immediate action to create a porn-free India
  17. Gurgaon tops cyber crime list
  18. Arrest for tweets against FM’s son raises new fears
  19. Your cyber crime-friendly legislation
  20. Revealed: Draconian penalties are on the rise in India… And the punishment doesn’t seem to fit the crime
  21. Legal notices sent over ‘anti-social’ messages 
  22. ‘Banning doesn’t guarantee women’s safety’
  23. Hacked by ‘Pakistan cyber army’, CBI website still not restored
  24. 97% cyber crime cases in city go unreported: Cops
  25. India Tightens Rules on Hate Speech Law
  1. Cyber Crime Reports on Media
  1. Maharashtra leads in cyber crimes in 2012!
  2. India arrested over 1,600 for cybercrimes in 2011
  3. Draconian penalties are on the rise in India… And the punishment doesn’t seem to fit the crime
  4. In midnight drama, two AI crew members were held under IT Act
  5. India 5th in cyber crime affected countries’ list
  6. The Great Indian Robbery: Cyber crime costs India 8 billion USD
  7. Cyber crime wing registers case against Facebook user
  8. ‘System hangs’ at first cyber crime police station
  9. ‘Indian police not capable of solving hi-tech cyber crimes’
  10. Cybercrime to go mobile, social in India in 2013
  11. Cyber crime: Fake accounts face action in Pune
  12. India Battles Against Cyber Crime
  13. India lost Rs 34,200 crore to cybercrime last year 
  14. Cyber crime on the rise; but what about arrest?
  15. More children fall prey to cyber crime as web users get younger
  16. Schools to sensitise kids on cyber crime
  17. Kapil Sibal rules out changes in cyber law
  18. CBMs in Cyber Space: What should be India’s Approach?
  19. After Websites, Anonymous India to Hit Streets Against Cyber Laws
  20. Cyber crimes: India yet to sign treaty with other countries
  21. No need for censorship of internet: Cyber law experts
  22. Cyber laws: Loopholes aplenty
  23. Cyber crime to be a bigger security concern in 2013
  24. How the 45 million dollar ATM heist poses danger to India’s IT industry
  25. Britain and India to agree cyber crime joint taskforce
  26. Gurgaon: Over 700 cyber crime complaints received
  27. 2,464 cases of cyber-crimes were registered in 2012: Milind Deora
  28. Gurgaon officer given ‘Cyber Cop of the Year 2013′ award by DSCI
  29. India to propose Indo-American Alert, Watch and Warn Network to combat cyber-crime
  30. PNB customers targeted by phishing email scam to steal passwords: Websense
  31. Ransomware blackmails you to pay, steals your data and never leaves your computer
  32. Reliance Capital files complaint against fake website
  33. Software techie held for harassing woman by fake Facebook posts
  34. Ahmedabad police offer ‘Help in Emergency’ app on cell-phones
  35. Hands-on training to Andhra Pradesh police officers to probe cyber-crimes
  36. Five-star hotel gets bomb threat through email
  37. Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime
  38. E-crime
  39. Cyber-crime, securities markets and systemic risk
  40. Cyber Crime is Getting Organised
  41. Cyber-Crimes and their Impacts: A Review
  42. Cybercrimes A Financial Sector View
  43. Invading privacy: Cyber crimes on the rise
  44. Criminal money flows on the Internet
  45. Automating Online Banking Fraud
  46. CYBER CRIMES – National Crime Records Bureau
  48. Combating Computer Crime: An International Perspective
  49. Cyber Crime and Cyber Security
  50. Cybercrime Attribution: An Eastern European Case Study
  51. Financial Fraud and Internet Banking:  Threats and Countermeasures
  52. Cybercriminal Activity
  53. Computer Crime and Computer Fraud
  54. Crime Data Mining: An Overview and Case Studies
  55. Business Banking Online Best Practices
  56. CYBERCRIME – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  57. PWC Nigeria Cybercrime Event
  58. Cyber-crime, securities markets and systemic risk (IOSCO Research Department and World Federation of Exchanges) (2013)
  59. ICT Penetration and Cybercrime in India: A Review (2013)
  60. ICT Penetration and Cybercrime in India: A Review
  61. Organized Cyber Crime and Bank Account Takeovers (2013)
  62. International Comparison of Cyber Crime
  63. Cybercrime – Security Risks and Challenges Facing Business (2013)
  64. Organizations and Cybercrime (2013)
  66. Cyber Crime – A Growing Challenges for Government
  67. Cyber crime A review of the evidence
  69. Cyber-crime, securities markets and systemic risk
  70. EY-Beating-Cybercrime
  71. Indian Audit and Account department-CaseStudiesonCyberCrimes
  72. Organized Cyber Crime and Bank Account Takeovers
  73. The 10 Most Mysterious Cyber Crimes
  79. Using Insurance to Mitigate Cybercrime Risk
  80. Why cyber criminals are winning: The secret weapon of the black hats
  81. Putin Says Will Boost Internet Security Without ‘Total Control’
  82. Europol Analyzes Cybercrime Services Industry
  83. Chinese Government Suspected of Using iOS, Android RATs Against Protesters
  84. Malvertising Threats Underscore the Need for an Approach to Security that Addresses the Full Attack Continuum
  85. DDoS Attacks Decline in Q2: Akamai
  86. Research Examines Twitter Abuse by Attackers
  87. Hackers Charged in Software Theft from U.S. Army, Others
  88. S. Authorities Indict Maker of Mobile Spy App ‘StealthGenie’
  89. New Data Breaches Hit Supervalu, Albertson’s
  90. FBI Launches Malware Investigator Tool
  91. New Interpol Complex in Singapore to Boost Fight Against Cybercrime
  92. JPMorgan: Info on 76 Million Households Hit in Data Breach
  93. China Cybercrime Costing US Billions: FBI Chief
  94. Feedback Friday: 83 Million Account Holders Hit by JPMorgan Breach – Industry Reactions
  95. K. Invests Heavily in ICS Cyber Security Research
  96. Data breaches rise as cyber criminals continue to outwit IT
  97. Shellshocked: Yes, it’s a huge threat, and here’s why
  98. How to rethink security for the new world of IT
  99. Monica Lewinsky Speaks Against Cyber Bullies…and Gets Cyber Bullied
  100. ‘Citizenfour’ Is Mesmerizing (If You Don’t Mind the Omissions)
  101. Vietnam police hunt hackers behind mass outage
  102. Dimon urges joint attack on hacking
  103. Stop cyber business built on stolen property
  104. Beyond bullying: Local teens share their stories of being bullied
  105. China Police arrest 30,000 in cyber crime crackdown
  106. Indo-Pak tension flares on cyberspace: Press Club of India’s website hacked
  107. Indian hacker hacks Pak railways website, says keep dreaming about Kashmir
  108. Dairy Queen Customer Data Compromised by Backoff Malware
  109. China angered after FBI head says Chinese hacking costs billions
  110. Cyberattacks trigger talk of ‘hacking back’
  111. Devices being remotely wiped in police custody
  112. Hackers Leap from Dark Basements to World Stage
  113. Social Media: More Hindrance Than Help in Banks’ Cybercrime Fight
  114. Cybercrime: The Next Entrepreneurial Growth Business?
  115. Bitcoin will do nicely — the state of Russian cyber crime
  116. Cybercrime Costing the US Billions: FBI Chief
  117. Interpol opens Singapore center to fight cyber crime
  118. Madras High Court seeks details of cyber crime complaints
  119. European banks team up with Europol in cybercrime fightback
  120. Couple sues Japanese, others for estafa, cybercrime
  121. Revenge Porn Is Malicious and Reprehensible. But Should It Be a Crime?
  122. FBI identified hackers which stolen intellectual property of Xbox One
  123. Tanzania: Cyber Criminals Deprive Country of Sh10 Billion
  124. Benton County Cyber Crimes Division Targets Sexual Predators
  125. Russian cybercrime group compromised half a million computers
  126. Man sentenced for part in global cybercrime ring
  127. When it comes to cybercrime, we are the weak link
  128. Britain threatens Internet ‘trolls’ with two years in jail
  129. McAfee Next generation firewall empowers enterprises to more effectively fight cybercrime with expanded threat defense ecosystem
  130. Hacked: The escalating arms race against cybercrime
  131. Cybercrime now becoming a serious problem for many Britons
  132. Cyber crime: NIE principal’s email account hacked
  133. Businesses underestimating threat cybercrime poses to profitability, cashflow and reputation, according to experts
  134. Cybercrime impacts half of Brits
  135. MMS Sparks Rally for Curb on Cyber Crime
  136. Hacker sentenced to 21 months in U.S. prison for $15 mln scheme
  137. Cybercrime fighters to target kingpins, says top EU cyber cop
  138. Edward Snowden is hampering the war on cybercrime, says Europol
  139. Connected Cars Vs. Cybercrime: Tough Fight
  140. DTCC urges greater collaboration on cyber-crime threats
  141. Christian Slater Joins USA’s Cyber Crime Pilot ‘Mr. Robot’
  142. Nigeria Senate Passes Cybercrime Bill
  143. Retailers prepare for cybercrime offensive
  144. Strategy to prevent cyber crime on anvil: Rajnath Singh
  145. Rising cyber crimes have magnified challenges: Rajnath Singh
  146. Navi Mumbai witnesses spurt in cyber crime cases
  147. Police vs cartels in the high-tech battle to stop cybercrime
  148. Business needs to take cyber crime seriously, says top EU cyber cop Troels Oerting
  149. Police Minister Announces Plan to Combat Cyber-Crime
  150. Cybercrime genius jailed after £6.3m theft from RBS
  151. Why International Cybercrime Is Going To Keep Getting Worse
  152. Tanzania: Cyber Crime – ICT Experts Grapple With Thefts, Online Piracy
  153. Get to know Voxis, the cybercrime platform for evading fraud detection
  154. The Right and the Wrong Way to Tackle Corporate Cyber Crime
  155. Nigeria Will Imprison Cyber Criminals for 7 Years
  156. IBM puts big data tools in the cloud and unleashes rapid cybercrime fighting software
  157. ‘Be aware of cyber crime’ – plea after thousands hit by Peter Pan virus
  158. 2 MINUTES ON: ‘Cybercrime-as-a-service’
  159. ‘Every day is a challenge’ – Inside Europol’s fight against cybercrime
  160. Students contacting Legal Aid over cyber bullying charges
  161. Cyber Crimes Cell Detects Nation Wide Tax Returns Fraud
  162. Cyber Crimes Cell detects nation-wide tax returns fraud
  163. Dangerous Hacking Threat: “Cyber Murders”
  164. Interpol’s new centre to counter cybercrime
  165. India region’s greatest source of smartphone cyber crime
  166. Pirate Bay co-founder arrested in Thailand
  167. Law targeting cyber-bullies raises civil liberties concerns
  168. Holland asks India to join global cyber crime control initiative
  169. Cyber crime: First online murder will happen by end of year, warns US firmКопирано от
  170. More than half of UK citizens hit by online crime, shows Get Safe Online survey
  171. Urgent need to strengthen global counter terrorism architecture: Rajnath at Interpol meet
  172. Third of advisers targeted by cyber crime
  173. International Cybercrime Probe Leads to 17 ‘Dark Net’ Drug Arrests
  174. Playing for Keeps: How Cyber-Criminals are Following the Money to Video Games
  175. Police say cyberbullying, sexting investigated at Warren Township High
  176. Why are Teens Searching for the Term “How to Kill Yourself”, NoBullying Investigates in an article released Today
  177. Mumbai: CM Fadnavis offers cops all aid to check cybercrime
  178. Patna police’s cybercrime cell still defunct
  179. Navi Mumbai witnesses spurt in cyber crime cases
  180. Cybercrimes rise nearly 3-fold in 1 year
  181. Dedicated squad at each police station to probe cyber crimes
  182. Codified law needed to deal with cyber crime: Supreme Court judge
  183. 307% increase in cybercrime in Mumbai, more cops to tackle cases
  184. 8 cybercrime trends that will challenge IT security professionals in 2015
  185. Cyber Crimes Cell detects nation-wide tax returns fraud 
  186. Indian organisations lack skills to combat cybercrime: Report
  187. Ethical hackers step in to solve cyber crimes
  188. Strategy to prevent cyber crime on anvil: Rajnath Singh
  189. Thirty percent of Indian school-goers face cyber crime
  190. India faces talent crunch to fight cybercrime: NTRO
  191. Small-town India turns out to be hub of cybercrime
  192. ‘Bank executive’ calls Mumbai lawyer to verify credit card details, robs him
  193. Email ID hacked, Rs 1.13 crore withdrawn from NRI’s account
  194. Conmen trick film scholar
  195. Bizarre revenge plot in cyber space
  196. Nerul woman fraudulently withdraws 40,000 using brother-in-law’s cloned debit card, booked
  197. Cyber crimes on the rise in India, Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka top list
  198. Cyber crimes alone cost India Rs.24,630 cr in 2013
  199. India Takes Down Its First Cyber Criminal
  200. Amrita-Digvijaya leak shows Delhi police’s failure to curb cyber crime
  201. Hackers deface Hazrat Nizamuddin Dargah website, case registered
  202. Cybercrime cases shot up in last 10 years: Telecom minister Ravi Shankar Prasad
  203. Experts favour PPP projects to arrest rise in cyber crimes
  204. Data theft threat sees rise in cyber security insurance policies
  205. Needed: full-fledged cyber crime police station
  206. Cyber crimes increase by 51 per cent
  207. Holland asks India to join global cyber crime control initiative
  208. Mumbai cyber crime cell sends takedown request to TwoCircles
  209. Ill-equipped Samta Nagar police transfer debit card fraud to cyber crime cell of Mumbai police
  210. Children prey to cyber-crime; majority of parents don’t feel so 
  211. Man cheated of Rs 29 lakh by cyber criminals
  212. ‘Actors an easy target for cybercrimes’
  213. Engineering Student Arrested for Debit Card Fraud in Hyderabad
  214. Madras High Court Seeks Details of Cybercrime Complaints
  215. How India’s First Wildlife Cyber Crime Cell Helped Nab Tiger Poachers
  216. Kerala’s CyberDome to Fight Cyber Crime
  217. Crime Branch officers undergo training in cyber crime probe
  218. Young hacker trains cops in tackling cyber-crime cases
  219. Need to re-look at IT Act to counter cyber crime: Govt
  220. Sony makes cybercrime even more dangerous
  221. Indian Government agency received almost 100k cybercrime complaints till September 2014
  222. Cyber crime cases rise by 39% in Pune this year
  223. Mumbai sees 170% jump in cyber crimes over 4 yrs
  224. India, Japan can work together for cybercrime, ICT development: Prasad
  225. Cyber crime: Hackers can easily access your webcam, capture your private pics to blackmail you
  226. Uber cab rape: Cyber crime experts call for guidelines for apps
  227. Soon, file cybercrime complaints at any police station in Mumbai
  228. PNP partners with Microsoft against cybercrime
  229. Sony breach moves cybercrime into new realm of attacks
  230. Cyber crime police investigations reach record levels
  231. Qatar moves to tackle cyber crime
  232. Cyber Crime Clouds Holiday Marketing Efforts
  233. Kenya arrests 77 Chinese nationals in cybercrime raids
  234. London joins coalition of cybercrime-fighting cities
  235. Facing Up to Online Murder and Other Cyber Crimes
  236. Microsoft’s futuristic cybercrime computer lets you see and hear botnet activity
  237. Cybercrime Group Preys on Wall Street Insider Information
  238. ACORN launched to call out Australian cybercrime
  239. Kenyan raid exposes hive of cybercrime
  240. Tech chief of cybercrime bank gets five year prison sentence
  241. Target for online cartels, Mumbai sees 4-fold rise in cyber crimes in a year
  242. Cyber bullying is a crime, but open to interpretation: Expert
  243. Only small number of Indian youth join ISIS: Govt
  244. Bill in RS to provide for death penalty for hijackers
  245. Parents warned: Beware of Internet code words for cyber-porn

[1] ‘Cyber Crimes in India- What is, Types, Web Hijacking, Cyber Stalking’ (Helpline Law) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[2] ibid

[3] ibid

[4] Apeksha Pandita, ‘How to Prevent Cyber Crime in India’ (MyAdvo, 15 November 2018) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[5] Apeksha Pandita, ‘How to Prevent Cyber Crime in India’ (MyAdvo, 15 November 2018) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[6] ibid

[7] ‘What is cyber crime?’ (REVE Anti-virus) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[8] ‘The 10 Steps to Help Stop Cybercrime’ (Dell) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[9] ‘Cybercrime Prevention Tips’ (Ennia) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[10] ibid

[11] ‘The 10 Steps to Help Stop Cybercrime’ (Dell) <> accessed 30 June 2019

[12] ‘The 10 Steps to Help Stop Cybercrime’ (Dell) <> accessed 30 June 2019